Realtors Guide to Newport Beach CA Real Estate
Learn all there is to know about the Real Estate market by a Top Newport Beach Realtor, Sharon Paxson of Arbor Real Estate. If you are a buyer and want to explore Newport Beach and specifically Newport Beach Real Estate, please get in touch as I have been selling here since 2005 and I know first hand what a great community Newport has to offer as I am a long-term resident of Newport Beach, California. There are very few Newport Beach Real Estate agents that have the track record and knowledge of the area. If you are considering selling your home in Newport Beach, I welcome the opportunity to demonstrate to you our marketing plan and how I will obtain top dollar in the shortest time frame.
The city of Newport Beach is one of Southern California’s most desirable communities to call home and is located along the Coast in Orange County, CA.
Newport Beach CA Real Estate
If you’re in the market to buy real estate in Newport Beach CA you will find a number of residential options to choose from. Whether you’re looking for an oceanfront home, an oceanfront condo, a property with a view, luxury homes, gated community homes, or an equestrian property, luxury estate home, single family home, or condo as a Newport Beach CA Realtor I can help you find exactly what you’re looking for!
Newport Beach has many different communities and different price points. There are many condo communities and gated communities that are guard gated and others are not. The community is diverse and there is truly something for everyone.
There is one 55+ community located in the Corona del Mar area which is called the Terraces. Corona del Mar is a highly sought after area, and people move to the area for the location and the walkability. It is very easy to walk to the Village of Corona del Mar and enjoy morning coffee, upscale dining, and shopping. Additionally, it is a very easy walk to the beach in Corona del Mar.
Residents and visitors can access the beach in Corona del Mar over the Goldenrod Footbridge. The Goldenrod Footbridge was built in 1928 for $10,884 and spans 243 feet across what was known as the “Pacific Gulch”. It was built to provide access to the beach for residents and visitors. At the time of the construction of this bridge, the population was less than 2000 people. The Goldenrod Footbridge crosses over Bayside Drive.
The Village of Corona del Mar is located along Coast Highway and runs along the flower streets. It is a very desirable area and features events throughout the year including the annual Christmas walk which is generally in early December.
Newport Beach began evolving in the late 1800’s when Captain Dunnels piloted the Vaquero into Newport Bay originally in 1870. The shipping industry began with The McFadden brothers when they brought in supplies from other parts of California and shipped them out. Because the original entrance to Newport Harbor was very treacherous, James McFadden built a wharf for steamers so they were able to dock.
In 1902, James McFadden sold his Newport property and about half of the Peninsula to William S. Collins who was originally from Pasadena, CA. Collins saw the Newport Bay potential of the area. Collins began working with Henry E. Huntington as a partner in the Newport Beach Company.
In 1916, Balboa Island had been annexed to the city of Newport Beach. Collins, California began dredging a channel on the north side of Newport Bay and deposited the sand on the tidelands that would eventually become Balboa Island in 1908. During this same time period, there were lots that were being offered for sale in the amounts of $350.00 to $750.00. Of course, the highest price lots were the bayfront and waterfront properties. However, even though these lots were being advertised, many of the original lots were sold for as little as $25.00.
Balboa Island in Newport Beach was considered a place to go for vacations in the summer. Many of the Balboa Island homes did not have heaters, so these homes were more commonly used during the summer months. Often times these homes were closed up during the winter.
Joe Beek was part of the initial development of Balboa Island. In 1919, Joe Beek obtained the initial contract for a ferry between Balboa Island and Balboa Peninsula. The first car that was transported on the Balboa Island Ferry was in 1920. Beeks original ferry boat was called the Joker, and the initial capacity was for two automobiles.
The Balboa Island ferry is still in existence and there currently are three 64 foot ferries, that have the capacity to carry three automobiles, bicyclists, and pedestrians. The hours of operation for the ferry are 6:30 a.m. until 12:00 a.m. on Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays. On Fridays and Saturdays, hours of operation are from 6:30 a.m. until 2:00 a.m. The ferry drivers are very skilled particularly during the summer months when Newport Harbor can be incredibly busy with the Newport Harbor boat traffic and frequent sailboat races. It is a charming way to travel from the Peninsula to Balboa Island and enjoy the beauty of the Newport Harbor on the brief journey.
Another piece of interesting history was in 1908 was that an Italian gondolier John Scarpa organized the first lighted boat parade in Newport Harbor. This started the yearly tradition which continues every annually. This tradition carries on as of today and visitors and tourists start way in advance making reservations at restaurants in order to view this incredible boat parade.
The parade is called the Newport Beach Boat Parade and Ring of Lights, and there is judging each year for the best-decorated boat/yacht and the homes on Balboa Island also decorate which is also judged.
Housing and Population Statistics
As of 2016, the population of Newport Beach was over 86,000 people according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Newport Beach is a destination city and many tourists will visit Newport Beach during the prime summer months to enjoy the beach lifestyle. There are many investment properties in Newport Beach, especially in popular locations such as the Balboa Peninsula, and these properties will be offered for weekly rental for tourists. The City of Newport Beach does require that these homes adhere to specific guidelines in order to allow weekly rentals. The most popular months for weekly rentals begin in June and go through September. Often times, the homes which are utilized as weekly rentals will then offer the homes for lease for a 9 month rental for the offseason.
Geography and Climate
Located along the Coast of Orange County, CA Newport Beach has a total land area of 23.8 square miles of land, total water area of 29.2 square miles, with a total area of 53 square miles.
The elevation of Newport Beach extends from sea level to the 1161 feet which are at the summit of Signal Peak in the San Joaquin Hills. The city is bordered on the east by Crystal Cove State Park which is a California State Park, on the west by Huntington Beach at the Santa Ana River Jetty, and on the north by Costa Mesa.
The areas of Newport Beach include Corona del Mar, Balboa Island, Balboa Peninsula (also known as Balboa), Lido Peninsula, Newport Coast, San Joaquin Hills, and Santa Ana Heights, and West Newport. Although the areas of Corona del Mar and Newport Coast have their own zip codes, they are still considered to be part of Newport Beach, and they are serviced by the City of Newport Beach including the Newport Beach Police Department, the Newport Beach Fire Department and other services.
The zip codes that are included in the City of Newport Beach include 92661, 92662, 92663, 92625, and 92657.
The weather in Newport Beach is very temperate and many people move to this location because of the climate. The hottest months in Newport Beach are August, September, and October with an average temperature in the low 80’s. However, it can get hotter during those months. It is not uncommon for homes in Newport Beach to not have air conditioning and that always seems to surprise some people moving to the area. The prevailing breeze is from the ocean and it generally keeps it fairly cool. During the winter months, the temperature can get down in the 40’s. In May and June, the onshore flow can keep it fairly cloudy, and often times it can be referred to as May gray, or June gloom, but the fog and overcast will eventually burn off.
Hoag Memorial Hospital is one of the largest employers in Newport Beach and Hoag is ranked nationally in 4 adult specialties and high-performing in 3 adult specialties. Hoag Memorial Hospital Presbyterian is a 457-bed general medical and surgical facility. Hoag is also affiliated with Keck USC for their oncology program. Other businesses in Newport Beach include the Irvine Company, Urban Decay cosmetics, PIMCO and Newport Mesa Unified School District. Fletcher Jones Motor Cars in Newport Beach is the largest Mercedes-Benz dealership in the world.
Population by Occupation
- Professional, scientific, tech services 16.4%
- Healthcare and social assistance 10.9%
- Finance and insurance 10.4%
- Manufacturing 10.4%
- Retail trade 9.4%
- Accommodation and food 4.1%
- Arts and entertainment 3.6%
Compared to other census places, Newport Beach, CA has an unusually high number of Real Estate, Rental & Leasing businesses.
Newport Beach, CA Schools
The Newport Mesa Unified School District offers some of the best public schools. In Newport Beach, the Newport Mesa Unified School District currently has 8 elementary schools, 2 middle schools and 2 high schools most of which have a rating of 10.
- Eastbluff Elementary | 12627 Vista del Oro, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 515-5920
- Harbor View Elementary | 900 Goldenrod Avenue, Corona del Mar CA 92625 | (949) 515-5940
- Lincoln Elementary | 3101 Pacific View Drive Corona del Mar, CA 92625 | (949) 515-6955
- Mariners Elementary | 2100 Mariners Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 515-6960
- Newport Coast Elementary |655 Ridge Park Road, Newport Coast, CA 92657 | (949) 515-6975
- Newport Elementary |327 W Balboa Boulevard, Newport Beach, CA 92661 | (949) 515-6965
Newport Heights Elementary |00 E 15th Street, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 515-6970
- Roy O. Anderson Elementary |1900 Port Seabourne Way, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 515-6935
Newport Beach Middle Schools
- Corona del Mar Middle School | 2101 Eastbluff Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 515-6000
- Horace Ensign Middle School |000 Cliff Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 515-6910
Newport Beach High Schools
- Corona del Mar High School | 2101 Eastbluff Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 515-6000
- Newport Harbor High School |600 Irvine Avenue, Newport Beach, CA 92663| (949) 515-6300
Colleges/Universities with over 2,000 Students near Newport Beach, CA
- California State University Long Beach | 1250 Bellflower Blvd, Long Beach, CA 90840 | (562) 985-4111
- Chapman University | 1 University Drive, Orange, California 92866 | (714) 997-6815
- Coastline Community College | 11460 Warner Avenue, Fountain Valley, CA 92708 | (714) 546-7600
- Goldenwest College | 15744 Goldenwest St, Huntington Beach, CA 92647 | (714) 892-7711
- Orange Coast College | 2701 Fairview Road, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 | (714) 432-5072
- University of California Irvine |260 Aldrich Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 | (949) 824-5011
- University of Southern California | University Park Campus, Los Angeles, CA 90089 | (213) 740-1111
Newport Beach, California has pristine California beaches with approximately ten miles of coastline which the residents and visitors enjoy swimming, running, walking, biking and surfing. Many visit Newport Beach annually and enjoy the beach, the piers, the boardwalk and of course the ocean. The boardwalk in Newport Beach begins at 36th Street and runs all the way down to E Street near the Balboa Pier.
The beaches and piers are open to the public from the hours of 6:00 a.m. until 10:00 p.m. This includes the beaches from the Santa Ana River Jetty which is in West Newport Beach to Crystal Cove Park. Crystal Cove Park beaches close at sunset.
There are two piers in Newport Beach and both piers and they are located on the Balboa Peninsula. The pier areas have businesses and restaurants located near them. Many residents who reside in Newport Beach either walk on the boardwalk or ride their bikes to local restaurants in the area. Skateboards are not permitted on the boardwalk.
The two piers in Newport Beach are:
- Balboa Pier | 1 Balboa Pier, Newport Beach, CA 92661 | (949) 644-3309
- Newport Pier at McFadden Place | 1 Newport Pier, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 644-3309
The Newport Beach Lifeguard Headquarters is located at the base of the Newport Beach Pier. There is a public metered parking lot located at the base of the Newport Pier and there is metered parking near the Balboa Pier. However, these fill up quickly during summer months, so best to arrive early. Sometimes there is parking available in local neighborhoods where you can park for free.
When you are visiting Newport Beach, be sure to check with lifeguards about water conditions, rip currents and waves. And when swimming, make sure to swim near a Lifeguard Tower. During the winter months, there are generally no lifeguards at the towers.
The Wedge in Newport Beach is located at the end of Peninsula Point at Channel Place and is always a great place to visit. A word of caution, the Wedge is for experienced surfers, swimmers, and bodyboarders. The waves at the Wedge can be monstrous depending on the direction of the swell.
There is public parking near the Wedge and it is residential in the area.
Popular surfing spots include the River Jetty, 56th Street, Blackies which is located by the Newport Beach Pier. There are often schools who will teach surfing if you have not done it, and I can attest it is an excellent workout, but incredibly peaceful.
Keep in mind all city beaches and parks are no smoking! Smoking is prohibited within 100 feet of city parks, park facilities, and beaches. A couple of other considerations are that dogs are not allowed at the beach between the hours of the hours of 10 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. Off-leash dogs are never allowed in Newport Beach (unless it is a dog park). And there is no alcohol consumption allowed on the beach.
Newport Beach Parks
- 38th Street | 3600 Balboa Boulevard
Back Bay View Park | 1900 Back Bay Drive
- Bayside Park | Bayside and Heliotrope in Corona del Mar
- Begonia Park | Begonia and First in Corona del Mar
- Bonita Canyon Sports Park | 1990 Ford Road
- Castaways | 700 Dover Drive
- Corona del Mar State Beach | 3001 Ocean Boulevard
- Inspiration | Orchid, and Ocean in Corona del Mar
- Look Out Point | Ocean, and Heliotrope in Corona del Mar
- M Street | Serrano and M Street
- Marina Park | 1600 Balboa Boulevard
- Newport Aquatics Center | 1 White Cliffs Drive
- Newport Harbor Pool | 600 Irvine Avenue
- Newport Shores Park | 220 61st Street
- Peninsula Park | A Street and Oceanfront
- Sunset Ridge Park | 4850 West Coast Highway
- West Jetty View Park | 2300 Channel Road
- West Newport Park | 5700 Seashore Drive | Tennis Facilities
Newport Beach offers programs for ALL AGES! There are fantastic programs such as the Surf Camp which is a weekly camp for youth designed to teach the students how to surf.
Newport Beach Junior Lifeguard Program
The Junior Lifeguard program is a fantastic program offered for kids who are at least 9 years of age and there are four divisions based on age. The children are required to pass a swim test and a test to tread water for three minutes. These tests are held in February, so it is important to have the children prepare so they can pass the test.
The Junior Lifeguard program is a summer program and those who passed the swim test and met the requirements are eligible to participate. I cannot recommend it enough, as the participants learn sun safety, water safety, and get in great condition as a result of this program. It is run by the Newport Beach Lifeguard Department.
- Hoag Memorial Hospital | 1 Hoag Dr, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 764-4624
Places of Worship
Newport Beach offers many places of worship throughout the community and surrounding communities.
- Liberty Baptist Church |1000 Bison Avenue, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 760-5444
Catholic – Roman Catholic
- Our Lady of Mount Carmel | 1441 W Balboa Boulevard, Newport Beach, CA 92661 | (949) 673-3775
- Our Lady Queen of Angels Catholic Church | 2046 Mar Vista Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 644-0200
St John Vianney
Chapel |14 Marine Avenue, Newport Beach, CA 92662 | (949) 432-5495
- St Matthew’s Church |2300 Ford Rd, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 219-0111
- St Michaels & All Angels Episcopal Church | 3233 Pacific View Drive, Corona Del Mar, CA 92625 | (949) 644-0463
- Chabad Center for Jewish Life |2240 University Dr, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 721-9800
- Temple Bat Yahm | 1011 Camelback St, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 644-1999
- Temple Isaiah of Newport Beach | 2401 Irvine Ave, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 548-6900
- Newport Harbor Lutheran Church | 798 Dover Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 548-3631
- Christchurch by the Sea | 1400 W Balboa Boulevard, Newport Beach, CA 92661 | (949) 673-3805
- Mariners Church | 5001 Newport Coast Drive, Irvine, CA 92603 | (949) 769-8100
- Rock Harbor Church – Costa Mesa Campus | 345 Fischer Avenue, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 | (714_ 384-0914
- St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church | 00 St Andrews Rd, Newport Beach, CA 92663 (949) 631-2880
World Class Shopping
Fashion Island is located at 401 Newport Center Dr, Newport Beach, CA 92660. Fashion Island is a gorgeous outdoor mall and there are ocean views from certain locations. Many of the stores in Fashion Island include Nordstrom, Bloomingdale’s, Neiman Marcus, the Apple Store, Louis Vuitton and over 200 specialty stores located on the coast.
Fashion Island features upscale dining at many restaurants including the Red O, Fig and Olive and the Great Maple. There is a theater called The Lot coming in Spring of 2018 which will have a cinema, restaurant, bar and a cafe.
Fashion Island has their annual Christmas Tree lighting which attracts many visitors and it kicks off the holiday season. The tree lighting is generally done before the Thanksgiving holiday.
Lido Marina Village has recently been completely re-done and it is charming. Featuring stores such as Elyse, Charlie & Me, and upscale dining including Nobu for fabulous sushi with an incredible bayside view.
Grocery and Pharmacy
- CVS Eastbluff Village Center | 2521 Eastbluff Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 717-6642
- CVS Westcliff Plaza | 1020 Irvine Avenue, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 642-0122
- Grower’s Direct | 01 E 17th Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 | (949) 631-7880
- Via Lido Drugs | 3445 Via Lido, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 723- 5858
- Pavillions | 3100 W Balboa Boulevard, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 675-2395
- Ralphs | 380 E 17th Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 | (949) 645-8283
- Whole Foods | 415 Newport Center Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 999-8572
- The Butchery | 103 E 17th Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 | (949) 548-6328
- Trader Joe’s | 640 W 17th Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 | (949) 642-5134
- Crown Ace Hardware |107 East Coast Highway, Corona Del Mar, CA 92625 | (949) 673-2800
- Crown Ace Hardware |1024 Irvine Avenue, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 642-1133
- Home Depot |2300 S Harbor Boulevard, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 | (49) 646-4220
Pet Stores & Supplies | Dog Parks
- Centinela Feed and Pet Supplies | 2320 Harbor Boulevard, Costa Mesa, CA 92626 | (714) 540-4036
- Chewy dot com | Online ordering of pet food and supplies delivered to your door
- Dog Park | Located at Avocado and San Miguel
- Penny’s Pup Wash (Self Serve) | 445 E 17th Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 | (949) 287-6915
- Petco Animal Supplies | 1815 Newport Boulevard, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 | (949) 722-6316
- Pet Smart | 620 W 17th Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 | (949) 764-9277
- Alta Coffee | 506 31st Street, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 675-0233
- Billy’s at the Beach | 2751 West Coast Highway, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 722-1100
- Blue Water Grill | 630 Lido Park Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92663 (49) 675-3474
- Charlie’s Chili | 102 Mc Fadden Place, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 675-7991
- The Cannery | 3010 Lafayette Road, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 566-0060
- Fuji Yama | 4511 West Coast Highway, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 548-7200
- Green Leaf Cafe | 234 E 17th Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 | (949) 200-3950
- Javier’s | 7832 Pacific Coast Highway, Newport Beach, CA 92657 | (949) 494-1239
- Sushi Roku | 327 Newport Center Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660 | (949) 706-3622
- Wilma’s Patio on Balboa Island | 203 Marine Avenue, Newport Beach, CA 92662 | (949) 675-5542
- Woody’s Wharf | 2318 Newport Boulevard, Newport Beach, CA 92663 | (949) 675-0474
Newport Beach Real Estate | Why choose a Top Realtor in Newport Beach, CA?
If you are considering selling your single family home, condo, investment property or other Newport Beach real estate, allow me to guide you through the entire selling process from start to finish.
When interviewing the best Newport Beach Realtor® there are many things that should be taken into consideration, such as past track record of success, marketing strategy, availability and communication skills. While putting a SOLD sign on your property is my #1 goal, I also want to make sure selling your home is a smooth and stress-free process for you.
I welcome the opportunity to discuss why I am a well-respected Realtor servicing the Newport Beach area.
There are no other Realtors in Newport Beach, CA who are providing the level of online exposure through social media integration or SEO (search engine optimized) results. If you are planning on selling your home, marketing it on the internet is one of my specialties. Not many Realtors are able to make your home seem like it’s “featured” everywhere and when over 90% of buyers find their new home online it’s imperative your home is showcased. It is imperative that you partner with a Realtor that puts your home front and center.
Your home will be found in all of the top places online where most buyers are searching for Newport Beach homes for sale, including this website, which is highly indexed by Google and other search engines including Bing, Yahoo, and Duck Duck Go. The idea of exceptional real estate marketing does not end with listing it in the MLS (Multiple Listing Service) and allowing it to syndicate to other 3rd party sites. I make sure to cover all aspects of online marketing, including websites like Facebook, Google Plus, Linkedin, Pinterest and Twitter to name a few.
Additional efforts that help my client’s homes stand out include professional photography with individual staged photos. Each photo includes a detailed description pointing out all the highlights that your home has to offer. Additionally, each listing has a custom video made of the property along with a community video to showcase the community, these videos are published on YouTube.
If you are in the market to buy a home you will find a number of residential options to choose from in Newport Beach that should match your lifestyle and budget needs. Whether you’re looking to purchase a single family home a condo, an oceanfront home, an equestrian horse property in Newport Beach CA, or sell your Newport Beach home, let me be your guide to the real estate market as a top Newport Beach CA real estate agent.
A few of my real estate and life accomplishments that I am proud of include:
- Graduated from USC with Bachelor of Science Degree
- Commercial, multi-engine rated Pilot
- Full-time Realtor since 2005 servicing Newport Beach and the surrounding communities
- Top 100 Realtor to Follow on Twitter 2013
- Member of National Association of Realtors
- Member of California Association of Realtors
- Member of Real Estate Masterminds
- Raised two daughters here in Newport Beach, my eldest is a Police Officer, and my youngest is a Senior at the University of Oregon Majoring in Accounting.
Other Newport Beach Real Estate Resources
- City of Newport Beach website
Realtor Newport Beach | Real Estate Agent Newport Beach | Newport Beach Real Estate
See all Newport Beach homes for sale below
$59,995,000 : 18 Harbor Island, Newport Beach6 beds, 12 baths
$2,750,000 : 2615 Alta Vista Drive, Newport Beach5 beds, 5 baths
$1,699,000 : 620 Michael Place, Newport Beach4 beds, 3 baths
$2,250,000 : 1717 Port Manleigh Circle, Newport Beach4 beds, 2 baths
$2,495,000 : 1924 Beryl Lane, Newport Beach4 beds, 4 baths
$2,100,000 : 217 E Balboa Boulevard, Newport Beach0 beds, 0 bath
$2,549,000 : 1752 Plaza Del Norte, Newport Beach2 beds, 1 bath
$3,295,000 : 416 E Bay Avenue, Newport Beach4 beds, 4 baths
$1,275,000 : 1661 Orchard Drive, Newport Beach5 beds, 3 baths
$3,300,000 : 1827 Mariners Drive, Newport Beach4 beds, 5 baths
$1,499,000 : 20112 Spruce Avenue, Newport Beach4 beds, 2 baths
$1,749,000 : 4812 River Avenue, Newport Beach3 beds, 2 baths
$2,395,000 : 2201 Alta Vista Drive, Newport Beach5 beds, 3 baths
$1,898,000 : 60 Belcourt Drive #28, Newport Beach2 beds, 3 baths
$1,995,000 : 17 Ocean Vista, Newport Beach2 beds, 3 baths
$6,750,000 : 80 Linda Isle, Newport Beach6 beds, 5 baths
$3,449,000 : 22 Rockingham Drive, Newport Beach5 beds, 5 baths
$5,495,000 : 2110 W Oceanfront, Newport Beach0 beds, 0 bath
$1,460,000 : 507 Avenida Campo, Newport Beach2 beds, 2 baths
$1,150,000 : 329 Vista Suerte, Newport Beach3 beds, 3 baths
See all Newport Beach Homes for Sale.
(all data current as of 5/25/2018)
Listing information deemed reliable but not guaranteed. Read full disclaimer.
All data in this post is deemed accurate but not guaranteed.